Article 1

"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."

Human Rights

The concept of human rights is global, not depending on different cultures.  Actually it is a timeless idea. It has existed as long as a human being could be called human in a sense that human rights belong to humans. At the individual level, while we are entitled our human rights, we should also respect the human rights of others. Human rights are commonly understood as "inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being." Human rights are thus conceived as universal (applicable everywhere) and egalitarian (the same for everyone).


The ancient world did not possess the concept of universal human rights. Ancient societies had "elaborate systems of duties, conceptions of justice, political legitimacy, and human flourishing that sought to realize human dignity or well-being entirely independent of human rights". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights
During the early Modern period, alongside with the European secularization of Judeo-Christian ethics the idea of human rights was further developed. The true forerunner of human rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval Natural law tradition that became prominent during the Enlightenment with such philosophers as John Locke, Francis Hutcheson, and Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui.
At the end of 18th century followed by the political discourse of the American and French Revolution  people get excited about their universal human rights. At a closer look were these rights actually addressed to the rights of white men.  At first later new groups of people became aware that human rights applied also to them. They were: Working class people, slaves, women, sexual minorities. Finally the rights of children were mentioned.
The basic ideas that animated the movement developed after the Second World War and the atrocities of The Holocaust culminated in the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Paris by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. There was stated in the Article 1 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights that "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."


These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights, in both national and international law. The doctrine of human rights in international practice, within international law, global and regional institutions, in the policies of states and in the activities of non-governmental organizations, has been a cornerstone of public policy around the world.
The idea of human rights states, "if the public discourse of peacetime global society can be said to have a common moral language, it is that of human rights." Despite this, the strong claims made by the doctrine of human rights continue to provoke considerable skepticism and debates about the content, nature and justifications of human rights to this day.  Without the living space secured and protected by the community we cannot speak about moral responsibility. The question of what is meant by a "right" is itself controversial and the subject of continued philosophical debate.